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Fruit trees: Mandarins, Mandaranci, ...

Fruit trees: Mandarins, Mandaranci, ...

The term Mandarin is used to designate a heterogeneous group of citrus fruits of great economic importance (worldwide, second only to orange). There are several schools of thought regarding their botanical classification.

Mandarin King (Citrus nobilis - Citrus deliciosa)

The Mandarin King (Citrus nobilis - Citrus deliciosa), of Chinese origin, was brought to Europe in the early nineteenth century. it seems to be a hybrid between Citrus reticulata (mandarancio) and Citrus sinensis (sweet orange).
and a robust plant with expanded foliage, up to 4.5 m high. Thorns are present only on suckers. The leaves, from ovate-oblong to ovate-lanceolate, have petioles with thin fins. The flowers are small, white, fragrant and individual. The fruits are medium in size, globular and depressed at the poles, with thin skin not adhering to the pulp; the latter is orange, aromatic and juicy and rich in seeds (although apyrene varieties have been selected).
The Avana variety is very widespread, from which numerous selections have been obtained such as Havana apirena and Tardivo di Ciaculli. Many varieties are used for ornamental purposes due to the long permanence of the fruits on the plant.

Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reshni)

The Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reshni), originally from India, forms plants with a compact and rounded habit. The leaves are small, narrow, dark green. The flowers are small and white and the fruits, globular and depressed at the poles, are similar to clementines; the peel is orange in color, slightly adherent to the pulp, which has a pleasant taste and is rich in seeds. It resists cold well and is used as a rootstock. Also used as an ornamental plant for the long persistence of the fruit.

Mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata - Citrus clementina)

The origins of the Mandarancio are uncertain: according to some scholars it is a very ancient species native to China and more generally to the Far East; others consider it a hybrid between mandarin and larancio (sweet or bitter), still others a hybrid between mandarin and chinotto.
Small tree, sometimes with thorny branches, with rounded crown, symmetrical and open. The leaves are lanceolate, bright green, with slightly winged petiole. The flowers are single or gathered in small inflorescences, very fragrant. The orange fruits have an easy-to-remove orange peel and a sweet pulp, rich in juice, with small and pointed seeds (today there are many apyrene varieties). Numerous varieties, from the group of the classic clementines (name that derives from that of the missionary friar, Clemente Rodier, who cultivated them in Algeria) to that of the Satsuma, obtained in Japan more than four centuries ago.
Their ripening is earlier than tangerines and they are more resistant to cold.
The best known varieties of clementines are Monreal, Di Nules, Oroval and Tardivo.
It is grafted on franc of the same or similar species, but Cleopatra Mandarin (Citrus reshni) is also used. Not ripening after harvest, they must be picked at the desired stage of ripeness.


Mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata - Citrus clementina)

Mandarancio leaves - Citrus reticulata - Citrus clementina (website photo)

Mandarin Satsuma (Citrus unshiu)

As said, the Satsuma Mandarin is originally from Japan (more than four centuries ago). In Italy it was brought in the late nineteenth century.
Medium-small plant, generally with an expanded habit. Large, dark green leaves, elliptical and with pointed apex. The flowers, single or in groups, white, appear in spring. The fruits are medium, globular and depressed at the poles, orange in color, have a thin skin, easy to remove; the pulp is juicy and generally seedless. The fruits are ripe when they have not yet reached the complete coloration of the skin. It resists cold enough and is appreciated as an ornamental plant for the long persistence of the fruit. They are grafted onto trifoliate orange.

Tangerine mandarin (Citrus tangerina) and Tangor

Tangerine Mandarin belongs to the very heterogeneous group of Tangerines. Tanaka considers it a species in its own right, others a cultivation (Dancy) of the tangerines.

Cultivation techniques


Video: How to plant citrus: The Ian Tolley Way (October 2021).